Circuit breaking is a critical component of distributed systems. It’s nearly always better to fail quickly and apply back pressure downstream as soon as possible. One of the main benefits of an Envoy mesh is that Envoy enforces circuit breaking limits at the network level as opposed to having to configure and code each application independently. Envoy supports various types of fully distributed (not coordinated) circuit breaking:
- Cluster maximum connections: The maximum number of connections that Envoy will establish to all hosts in an upstream cluster. In practice this is only applicable to HTTP/1.1 clusters since HTTP/2 uses a single connection to each host.
- Cluster maximum pending requests: The maximum number of requests that will be queued while waiting for a ready connection pool connection. In practice this is only applicable to HTTP/1.1 clusters since HTTP/2 connection pools never queue requests. HTTP/2 requests are multiplexed immediately. If this circuit breaker overflows the upstream_rq_pending_overflow counter for the cluster will increment.
- Cluster maximum requests: The maximum number of requests that can be outstanding to all hosts in a cluster at any given time. In practice this is applicable to HTTP/2 clusters since HTTP/1.1 clusters are governed by the maximum connections circuit breaker. If this circuit breaker overflows the upstream_rq_pending_overflow counter for the cluster will increment.
- Cluster maximum active retries: The maximum number of retries that can be outstanding to all hosts in a cluster at any given time. In general we recommend aggressively circuit breaking retries so that retries for sporadic failures are allowed but the overall retry volume cannot explode and cause large scale cascading failure. If this circuit breaker overflows the upstream_rq_retry_overflow counter for the cluster will increment.
Each circuit breaking limit is configurable and tracked on a per upstream cluster and per priority basis. This allows different components of the distributed system to be tuned independently and have different limits. The live state of these circuit breakers can be observed via statistics.
Note that circuit breaking will cause the x-envoy-overloaded header to be set by the router filter in the case of HTTP requests.